biomarker
panels

Currently available panels

The following single-chip panels are available for the Liscar 6 platform. Additional panels will be highlighted here as they come on stream so please check back regularly or get in touch so that we can notify you when new panels are released.

COVID19 Antibody Immunity Test

Attomarker has developed a COVID19 Antibody Immunity test which is CE marked and is fully quantitative referenced to the NIST standard human antibody. The test measures the antibody immunity profile for antibodies binding to spike, omicron-spike, nucleocapsid and receptor binding domain proteins. 1,2 Antibody Immunity profile (Figure 5) provides the following information:

  • Nucleocapsid (N) indicating past viremia;
  • Spike Protein (S) indicating past infection or vaccination;
  • Spike Protein from the Omicron Variant (SO) indicating vaccine binding to the Omicron variant or infection from Omicron;
  • Receptor Binding Domain (RBD)

The test also measures the familiar C Reactive Protein. The Test is performed currently from venous blood for accuracy with the results available in 7 minutes, presented as the Biomark (Figure 5) available on the iPhone app.

The concentration of S antibodies is used to assess the number of ‘Immunity Days’ to the ‘Edge of Immunity’ calculated from an antibody half-life of 60 days and a mucosal protection threshold of 3.4 mg/L, rounded to the nearest month.

The Edge of Immunity depends on your antibody half-life and ranges from 60 – 200 days3. The test can measure your precise half-life but we would need to take two samples 100 days apart. Your doctor can advised on whether this is important to you.

The test is usually sold as part of a consultation in private healthcare to patients who believe they are immuno-compromised, preparing to travel, have vulnerable relatives or considering whether to have a booster jab or not.

biomark-app

Figure 5

Warning – Omicron BA.1 Variant UPDATE

There is now growing evidence from the Attomarker clinics that suggests the 3.4 mg/L threshold needs to be revised upwards perhaps to 6.8 mg/L because of vaccine escape. The highest un-protective level recorded so far is 9 mg/L on the spike-variant.

At the beginning of the pandemic N antibody levels were a good measure of past infection. We are now observing Omicron infections that do not produce N antibodies in our test, probably because infections are milder.

Conclusions

  • Antibody Immunity can be quantified and there is growing evidence that a threshold of 3.4 mg/L will protect against infection.
  • The antibody immunity wanes over time and this is estimated using the immunity days based on the shortest observed antibody half-life. It is the edge of immunity after which antibody levels may not be protective.
  • The immunity days can be made more accurate with a paired test measured 100 days apart.
  • The BA.1 variant probably shortens the days to the edge of immunity by up to 30 days.