infectious diseases covid-19

Covid-19: An Overview

COVID-19 is an infectious disease is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with a coronavirus.

The Attomarker Antibody Immunity Test measures antibodies in the blood to the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus causing COVID-19. The total IgG response is measured to three antigens on the surface of the virus: Nucleocapsid (N), Spike (S) (and now Omicron Spike) and Receptor Binding Domain (RBD). RBD is the region of the spike protein that docks with the ACE2 receptor to enter our cells and indicates neutralising antibodies.

If someone is currently infected with the COVID-19 virus or has recently had it, their body’s natural response is to produce three different types of antibodies to all three proteins: N, S and RBD Triple Positive. Studies have shown the production of these antibodies in people around 2 weeks after symptoms (for patients who were recovering at the hospital – see trial at St Thomas’).

Key Symptoms of Covid-19




A new or continuous cough


Loss of sense of smell or taste or change in it


Feeling short of breath

Attomarker Antibody Immunity Test

Adding Insight into the Immunology

Behind the Science

The production of antibodies works a little differently when dealing with a vaccine and not a natural infection. When individuals take the COVID-19 vaccine, the antibodies produced after being administered with the vaccine (such as the Pfizer vaccine) are the S and RBD, not the N.

Antibodies are what indicate your immune system is responding and working to protect your body from an antigen – a substance that is not recognised by the body. For example, if an individual contracts the coronavirus for the first time and/or has not been vaccinated, this virus will not be recognised by the body as yet. Along with antibodies, T and B cells will be produced. T and B cells may sometimes enable immunity of an individual, particularly the B cell as they can become memory cells.

However, antibody levels do decrease as time goes on therefore even if you have been vaccinated or have had COVID-19 in the past, boosters are still recommended to ensure you have an adequate number of antibodies in your system. It is similar to getting a flu vaccination during flu season each year.

Our COVID-19 Antibody Immunity Test can measure your antibody immunity profile letting you know the best time to get your booster.


More information is available here:

Keep Updated

Check out our LinkedIn for the latest updates on Attomarker including our Company Announcements, Investor Announcement and product launches.